However, some third-country nationals are allowed to stay more than 90 days in the Schengen area without having to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for an extended residence visa.  In addition, Article 20, paragraph 2, of the Schengen Agreement continues to apply it “in exceptional circumstances” and bilateral agreements concluded by some signatory states with other countries prior to the convention`s entry into force. For example, New Zealand nationals can stay for up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already entered into bilateral visa-free agreements with the New Zealand government prior to the entry into force of the bilateral visa waiver agreement, without the need to apply for a long-term visa. but if you are travelling to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply within 180 days.               Negotiations on visa liberalisation between the EU and the Western Balkans (excluding Kosovo) began in the first half of 2008 and ended in 2009 (for Montenegro, Macedonia and Serbia) and 2010 (for Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina). Prior to the total abolition of visas, the countries of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Northern Macedonia and Serbia) had signed “visa easing agreements” with the Schengen states in 2008. Visa facilitation agreements should, at the time, reduce wait times, reduce visa fees (including free visas for certain categories of travellers) and reduce red tape. In practice, however, the new procedures have proven to be longer, heavier and more costly, and many have complained about the ease of obtaining visas before mediation agreements come into force.    Since June 2017[Update], ten local transportation agreements have come into force. After Slovakia, Denmark, the Czech Republic and Poland announced in mid-March the complete closure of their national borders, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said that “some controls may be justified, but the World Health Organization does not consider general travel bans to be the most effective. In addition, they have strong social and economic repercussions, disrupting people`s lives and affairs across borders.  Von der Leyen also apologised to Italy, amid widespread Italian discontent over Europe`s lack of solidarity.  Until the end of March 2020, almost all of Schengen`s internal borders were closed to non-essential travel.
By July 2020, most of the borders closed due to coronavirus had been reopened. Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed interest in joining the Schengen Agreements with a view to closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities under the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then to be escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or by helicopter. [Citation required] However, there is no customs union (including customs) between Italy and the Vatican, so all vehicles are controlled at the Vatican`s borders.